Evaluation Manager (Evaluation Consultant) for the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Board (2013—Present)
Dr. Lewis is part of a team led by SERA (Skumatz Economic Research Associates) to manage the Connecticut energy efficiency evaluations. This includes leadership in evaluation design, planning and management of three research area evaluation contractors.
NYSERDA’s Impact Evaluation Team (2012—Present)
Dr. Lewis is a subcontractor to Energy & Resource Solutions, Inc. (ERS) as part of a large contract and team to plan and conduct the impact evaluations for the energy efficiency and research and development programs implemented by the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA). This work includes planning and conducting impact evaluations, net–to–gross evaluations, evaluation of NYSERDA’s research and development programs and development of state–of–the–art evaluation research design. Dr. Lewis is supporting and working as part of the subgroups, led by ERS and Itron, designing and conducting net–to–gross evaluation, survey design and billing analysis, and completing a commercial and industrial non–participant spillover study and high bay lighting cross–state comparison.
NYSERDA’s Impact Evaluation Team (2007—2012)
Dr. Lewis led a team of nine firms that planned and conducted the impact evaluations for New York’s system benefits charge (SBC) energy efficiency and research and development programs implemented by the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA). This work included planning and conducting impact evaluations, net–to–gross evaluations, evaluation of NYSERDA’s research and development programs, development of state–of–the–art evaluation research design and methodologies (such as the nation’s first prospective benefits study in 2008) and assistance with cost–effectiveness analyses and inputs.
Renewable Energy Siting Study for the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) (2009)
Dr. Lewis was the senior advisor/quality control for high–level interviews conducted by Megdal & Associates for this research study led by TRC Solutions, Inc. This study assessed the challenges faced by those siting renewable energy projects in Massachusetts in order for efficiency improvements to be made to the process while continuing to provide quality review and protection. Decision–criteria for site selection and experiences and comparative perceptions were examined to provide context and depth for the siting study analysis.
Master Evaluation Contract Team for California (2002—2009)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by TecMarket Works that assisted the California Public Utilities Commission with consolidation recommendations, coordination, review/assistance in the EM&V plans of California’s over 80 energy efficiency programs, and culminated with a meta–analysis in 2004 (end of first contract) and 2007 (end of second contract). For 2007—2009, she was the advisor to the CPUC project manager for the Residential Retrofit Evaluation Contract. Over $12 million, this is the largest contract in their portfolio..
Evaluation of the CFL, Appliance and Residential New Construction Thermostat Programs Implemented by Hydro Quebéc (2007—2008)
Dr. Lewis was the senior technical advisor for a team led by Econoler International that conducted the evaluations of the CFL, appliance and residential new construction thermostat programs implemented by Hydro Quebéc (HQ). Innovative methods and work was conducted to derive successful market effects and spillover analyses for HQ’s CFL and appliance programs and a successful billing analysis that measured impacts for the residential new construction programmable thermostats.
Evaluation of PowerCost Monitor TM, An Information Program Sponsored by the Massachusetts Utilities (2007—2008)
Dr. Lewis was the senior technical advisor for an Opinion Dynamics Corporation (ODC) team that conducted an interim and second–stage process evaluation and an impact evaluation for a pilot program offered by National Grid, NSTAR and Western Massachusetts Electric. These programs encouraged/installed a PowerCost MonitorTM that provided immediate feedback to customers on their electricity usage via a home monitor.
Development of New California Evaluation Protocols (2005—2006)
Dr. Lewis was a key member of a team led by TecMarket Works to develop new California evaluation protocols. Dr. Lewis was the lead for the development of the Impact Evaluation Protocol and contributing to the overall effort, Market Effects Protocol, Effective Useful Life (EUL) and Degradation Protocol, Process Evaluation Protocol, and Sampling and Uncertainty Protocol. This was a remarkably distinguished team also consisting of Nick Hall, Dr. Rick Ridge, Dr. Jane Peters, Pete Jacobs, Steve Kromer, Dr. Ed Vine, Sharyn Barata, and Dr. Ken Keating.
Program Analysis for NYSERDA’s Energy $mart SM Programs (2003—2007)
Dr. Lewis was a key leader in the GDS project developing and analyzing program theory and logic models for the NYSERDA programs. This project is state–of–the–art by expanding the program theory examination and comparing the program theory with a variety of relevant theories from the social sciences, marketing, and economics. This exam is being used to assess the logic model and to provide insights for potential evaluation and program improvements.
CFL Lighting Evaluation for Long Island (2006)
Dr. Lewis assisted an Opinion Dynamics Corporation team with the evaluation efforts for the CFL lighting promotion program conducted by KeySpan Energy Services for the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA).
Evaluation of California’s Home Energy Efficiency Survey (HEES)(audit) Program (2005—2006)
Dr. Lewis was a key senior advisor and analyst on an Opinion Dynamics Corporation team that conducted the evaluation of the California Home Energy Efficiency Survey (HEES)(audit) program. She provided advice for the process evaluation, led the program logic modeling effort and initial development for future indicators and led the pilot impact evaluation.
Massachusetts and Connecticut Free Ridership and Spillover Study for Many Commercial and Industrial Programs (2005)
Dr. Lewis led a team with Opinion Dynamics Corporation to modify and use the Massachusetts Standardized Method for Free Ridership and Spillover to estimate the net effects for all the commercial and industrial programs for National Grid (across MA, RI, and NH), Western Massachusetts Electric, Fitchberg Gas & Electric, Cape Light Compact, Connecticut Power and Light, and United Illuminating.
Southern California Gas’ 9–Year Retention Study of Their 1996 Commercial Energy Efficiency Initiative (CEEI) (2005)
Dr. Lewis led the research design, sampling, and analysis for this study being led by ASW Management Engineering Consulting. Dr. Lewis completed survival analysis for this study and produced effective useful life (EUL) estimates from that analysis.
9–Year Retention Study of the San Diego Gas & Electric 1996 and 1997 Residential Weatherization Retrofit Incentive Programs (2005)
Dr. Lewis led the 9–year retention study with EUL assessment for these programs. A retrospective time series was constructed from the survey data and regression analysis produced EUL estimates.
Portfolio Review Assistance to the California Public Utilities Commission (2005)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by TecMarket Works that conducted the review of the IOU Portfolio submission plans for all California efficiency programs for 2006—2008. This projectl also included a process evaluation on the process used for planning and public and expert review.
California White Papers on Net–to–Gross (NTG) Methodologies for the Non–Residential New Construction (NRNC) Program and Estimating Impacts for Codes & Standards Investments (2005)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by Herschong Mahone Group (HMG) with Dr. Ken Keating, Rick Ridge, and Nick Hall that were asked to assess and produce white papers as input into the decisions for methodologies and issues to be pursued for future evaluation efforts. Dr. Lewis led the review of the prior NTG methodologies that have been used for the California NRNC programs.
Massachusetts Renewable Energy Education and Public Awareness Evaluation (2004—2005)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by GDS Associates, Inc. that created program logic models, evaluation plans, and conducted the immediate term evaluation studies for the education and public awareness initiatives led by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC) and funded by the Renewable Energy Trust (RET).
Massachusetts Green Power Evaluation (2004)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by GDS Associates, Inc. that created program logic models, evaluation plans, and conducted the immediate term evaluation studies for the seven green power initiations from the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC) funded by the Renewable Energy Trust (RET).
Connecticut ENERGY STAR® Lighting Evaluation (2004—2005)
Dr. Lewis was the technical advisor for an Opinion Dynamics Corporation team performing evaluation of the Connecticut ENERGY STAR® lighting program. This consisted of a consumer survey, program staff interviews, and in–home visits.
Development of the California New Evaluation Framework/Roadmap (2003—2004)
Dr. Lewis was the technical lead on a large TecMarket Works team of national experts in a project that developed a new evaluation roadmap. This project provided guidelines and a “how–to” reference manual for conducting energy efficiency evaluation. This work looks at impact evaluation, measurement and verification (M&V), process evaluation, market evaluation, information and education program evaluation, uncertainty considerations and bias minimization and reporting, sampling, cost–effectiveness issues related to program evaluation, and overarching evaluation studies.
National Best Practices Study (2003—2004)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by Quantum Consulting that produced a national best practices study that assessed program best practices as the program component level by program sector. In this way, the study was designed to provide a useful tool for program planners and managers about specific practices, rather than just an award or recognition effort. She led and wrote the chapter on best practices for advertising programs.
Process Evaluation of the Cape Light Compact’s Low–Income Programs (2003—2004)
Dr. Lewis was the senior advisor for the Opinion Dynamics Corporation (ODC) process evaluation of the three low–income programs supported by the Cape Light Compact. These are single family, multifamily, and new construction programs for low–income households.
Impact Evaluation of NStar Electric’s Large C/I Retrofit Program (2003—2004)
Dr. Lewis was part of a team led by Energy & Resource Solutions and with Opinion Dynamics Corporation. She provided sampling and statistical expertise to the team effort.
Evaluation and Measurement for Massachusetts ENERGY STAR® Lighting Program (2002—2004)
Megdal & Associates, with Opinion Dynamics Corporation, performed a multi–task multi–year market measurement and program process evaluation for the Massachusetts ENERGY STAR® Lighting Program. Work included market assessment and progress measurement, process evaluation, mystery shopping, retailer survey, in–store shelving and stocking measurement, and market penetration curves from Delphi forecasting to determine market effects, with Dr. Lewis leading the Delphi forecast effort.
Evaluation Advisor for the ICF Assistance Contract to the U.S. EPA for their ENERGY STAR® Buildings Program (2002—2006)
Dr. Lewis was part of the ICF team assisting the U.S. EPA for their ENERGY STAR® Buildings Program as the senior evaluator. Her work in 2002 consisted of an evaluation of the benchmark on–line training effort.
Savings Assumptions Comparative in Massachusetts Low–Income Programs (2002)
Megdal & Associates worked with GDS Associates to provide a collection of the savings assumptions and benefit/cost assumptions used for the different Massachusetts utility low–income programs. This was designed to assist the statewide effort (LEAN) to examine best practices and move towards more uniform statewide efforts.
Process Evaluation of Cape Light Compact’s Residential High Use Program and Small Commercial & Industrial Program (2002)
Dr. Lewis assisted Opinion Dynamics Corporation in these process evaluations. They included staff interviews, participant telephone surveys, estimating free ridership, spillover, and snapback.
Evaluation of Pacific Gas & Electric’s Hard–to–Reach Outreach Efforts (2002)
Dr. Lewis was the senior technical advisor and lead for the analysis of PG&E’s 2001 Hard–to–Reach Outreach Efforts. This included material reviews, program interviews, interviews with community–based organizations involved in the efforts, and customer telephone surveys. The analysis approach was unique using a comparative matrix approach and examining a variety of factors in both the environment for the diverse efforts (from small businesses, Chinese population, Hispanic businesses, rural, mobile home, etc.) and in their approaches.
Evaluation Planning for KeySpan Energy Delivery New England (2002)
Dr. Lewis worked with a GDS team that assisted KeySpan New England (formerly Boston Gas, Colonial Gas, and Essex Gas) in developing their evaluation plan for 2002—2006 to go along with an extension to their energy efficiency and market transformation programs.
Impact Evaluation of Northeast Utilities’ Municipal Program (2002)
Dr. Lewis assisted a GDS Associates’ team in the impact evaluation of NU’s Municipal Program that provides 100% cost coverage for energy efficiency improvements to municipal and school buildings in distressed cities in its service territory.
Process Evaluation of Connecticut’s O&M RFP Program (2001—2002)
Dr. Lewis led a process evaluation for Northeast Utilities Systems, Inc. on the Connecticut Operations and Maintenance RFP Program. This was a process evaluation of an RFP process, which hopes to obtain innovative O&M program(s) that would transform the O&M market in Connecticut.
Impact Evaluation of NSTAR’s Residential High Use Program (2001)
Dr. Lewis led the impact evaluation of NSTAR’s (Boston Edison Company and ComElectric) Residential High Use Program. The evaluation included an engineering review, database review, billing analysis, customer survey, site visits, and assessment of impact–related process issues. The work was completed with GDS Associates, Inc., and Opinion Dynamics Corporation.
Two–Year Process & Impact Evaluation of Long Island Power Authority’s (LIPA’s) Low–Income Program (Residential Energy Affordability Partnership Program) (2001—2004)
Dr. Lewis led the process and impact evaluation of LIPA’s low–income program. This program includes energy efficiency and education efforts. The evaluation included preliminary impact and process evaluations, and a second process and impact evaluation.
Retention and Effective Useful Life (EUL) Study of the Commercial Energy Incentive Program for Southern California Gas Company (2001)
Dr. Lewis led the technical aspects of retention study design and the EUL analysis as part of a team led by ASW Engineering Management Consultants, Inc. The design, retention site visits, EUL analysis, and reporting was completed in less than 60 days to meet special constraints being faced by Southern California Gas Company.
Commercial and Industrial Program Evaluation of Efficiency Vermont (2000—2002)
Dr. Lewis was one of the senior experts in the GDS Associates team that conducted the evaluation for the Vermont Department of Public Service of commercial and industrial programs operated by the statewide Efficiency Vermont efficiency utility.
Low–Income Public Purpose Test for California (2000—2001)
Dr. Lewis was a senior reviewer and advisor on a team led by Nick Hall of TecMRKT Works with Dr. Lisa Skumatz of SERA, that developed a Low–Income Public Purpose Test for California to be used to measure cost–effectiveness of low–income energy efficiency programs in a way that incorporated non–energy benefits and costs. This landmark study built off of the prior work of all three of these lead investigators, as well as drawing from other related work. A model was developed that could be used to run the LIPPT with on–off switches available for different benefits or costs, and allowing assumptions to be altered to test sensitivity.
Small Business Full Service Solution (2000—2001)
Dr. Lewis led the market assessment and evaluation design as part of an implementation project being conducted by ICF Consulting, Inc. for Pacific Gas & Electric Company. This project was a Third–Party Initiative market transformation project. It tested the concept of developing a franchise packet for the creation of an auditor/broker business that would reduce market barriers for these mid–stream actors that in turn run businesses that reduce market barriers for energy efficiency retrofits of small business customers. This unique MT test was complemented by the innovative MA&E approach, designed by Dr. Lewis, which drew upon Pro Forma analysis using pilot test data to assess the probability that the auditor/broker businesses developed from the franchise effort could be profitable businesses. (The MA&E plan also included interview guides for participant and rejecter interviews at both the contractor, and small business customer level).
Evaluation of Northeast Utilities’ Commercial and Industrial O&M Program and Custom Services Program (2000)
Dr. Lewis led the design, instrument development, and senior program staff interviews for the process evaluation component of this evaluation that was led by RLW Analytics, Inc. The impact evaluation, data collection, and reporting was conducted by RLW Analytics, Inc.
Pacific Gas & Electric Company Residential Retention Study (2000)
Dr. Lewis assisted Quantum Consulting concerning testing the functional EUL form as a multi–step function in a refrigerator retention study for PG&E.
Process Evaluation of the Low–Income Single Family (LISF), Multi–family (LIMF) and New Construction (LINC) Programs and Implementation Analysis for the LISF for NSTAR (Boston Edison Company and ComElectric Company Programs) (2000)
Dr. Lewis led the process evaluation for these three new low–income programs for Boston Edison and ComElectric, an implementation analysis of the single family program, comparing their results, and providing recommendations both across programs, across utilities and if they combine programs, and for consideration by the committee examining a statewide uniform low–income effort. The work included participant telephone surveys, surveys of owners and tenants of the multi–family programs, program staff interviews, and interviews with the new construction program participants.
Comparative Evaluation of 3 Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs (WMEP Evaluation for the ECW) (2000—2001)
Dr. Lewis led a comparative evaluation examining three industrial energy efficiency programs for the Energy Center of Wisconsin (ECW). These three programs operate with different models, 1) an industrial process (non–energy based) improvement program by the Wisconsin Manufacturing Extension Program (WMEP), 2) an energy audit/process assessment joint pilot of WMEP and ECW, and 3) a joint WMEP and utility program utilizing the utility account representatives.
NYSERDA’s New York Energy $mart TM Program Evaluation (1999—2002)
Dr. Lewis was the technical director for the GDS Associates, Inc. team assisting NYSERDA with their first three evaluations of the New York Energy $mart
Evaluation of Southern California Gas Company’s 1999 Third–Party Initiative (TPI) Programs (1999—2000)
Dr. Lewis was a senior investigator for work being conducted by Quantum Consulting for Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas). This project examined the seven 1999 TPI programs sponsored by SoCalGas for their ability to affect market transformation, and cost–effective market effects measurement.
Assessment of California’s Residential New Construction Market Transformation Efforts (1999—2000)
Dr. Lewis was a senior investigator for work conducted by Quantum Consulting for Pacific Gas & Electric on behalf of the California Board for Energy Efficiency (CBEE). This project included initial market assessment for manufactured housing and MT measurement across the four utility residential new construction (RNC) efforts. Dr. Lewis assisted with the theoretical basis and with other team members advanced the exam of market barriers over time combining a market barrier perspective with an adoption continuum perspective.
Market Transformation Policy and Research for Ontario Gas Utilities (1999)
Dr. Lewis led work for the gas utilities in Ontario, Canada (Union Gas and Enbridge Consumers Gas) developing policies and methods to transition to market transformation efforts and research. This included initial MT workshops, development of a position paper, and development of a gap analysis methodology for MT information needed versus incremental to on–going research efforts.
Market Progress Evaluation for Local Government Association Support Project (1999—2000)
Dr. Lewis led the evaluation for 1999 and the year 2000 of the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance’s (NEEA) Local Government Association Support Project (LGA project). This innovative evaluation combined elements from diffusion of innovation theory and its application of change agents with elements from a process–type evaluation. The program itself is also an unusual market transformation effort as it is an infrastructure support program to support other NEEA direct MT efforts via the local government associations work with the hundreds of local cities and governments in the four state region. Work included interviews and a mail survey for local governments across four states.
Initial Market Effects Studies of Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s Commercial Audit (BEMS) and Incentive Programs (Express Efficiency) (1999)
As part of an evaluation project led by Quantum Consulting (for the BEMS program) and led by Xenergy (for the Express Efficiency program) for Pacific Gas & Electric, Dr. Lewis led the program theory component of the set–up for the research and instrument design. The project then utilized gap analysis and well–designed program theory matrices to determine cost–effective research components and use of prior work. From this, a market effects, assessment, and baseline study were conducted for these two commercial programs.
Evaluation of Process and Projects of California’s Third Party Initiative (TPI) Market Transformation Programs (1998—1999)
As part of an evaluation project led by Quantum Consulting for Southern California Edison, Dr. Lewis researched and reviewed TPI material, other California program information, and national research for four markets (residential new construction, evaporative cooling, energy efficiency mortgages, and code enforcement) for a report prepared for the California Board for Energy Efficiency (CBEE). This included examining TPI proposals for the process evaluation in a systematic fashion, and designing a systematic review form for related evaluations in TPI markets to provide the basis for effectiveness and gap analysis.
Market Assessment and Baseline Study of Residential New Construction in Southern New England (1998—1999)
Dr. Lewis was part of the team of researchers led by Delta Technologies (Mr. Richard Spellman) that conducted the baseline study on residential new construction in Massachusetts and Rhode Island for the electric utilities in these states. The work built off of that already performed for the Boston Gas Company, allowing a more cost–effective effort that is consistent with the gas utility effort.
Retention Study of Residential Weatherization Programs (1998—1999)
Dr. Lewis led the measure retention study for San Diego Gas & Electric’s (holder of the contract) and Pacific Gas & Electric’s Residential Weatherization Retrofit Incentive (RWRI) programs. This included examining the effective useful life (EUL) for the measures in these programs.
Impact and Process Evaluation for Low–Income Program (1998)
Dr. Lewis led the impact and process evaluations for the Boston Gas Company’s new low–income energy program.
Measure Retention Study of Low–Income Programs (1998—1999)
Dr. Lewis led the statewide measure retention study in California for the utilities’ low—income energy program (Direct Assistance Program—DAP). Under contract to Southern California Edison (SCE), the study was conducted for SCE, Pacific Gas & Electric, Southern California Gas, SCE, and San Diego Gas & Electric.
Baseline and Market Assessment Studies for Boston Gas and the Massachusetts Gas Collaborative for 3 Market Sectors (1998—2001)
Dr. Lewis was one of the three primary investigators for 12 research efforts conducted for the Boston Gas Company and the Massachusetts Gas Collaborative for Market Assessment and Baseline Studies in the residential high efficiency heating market, the commercial/industrial and multifamily high efficiency heating market, and the residential new construction market (Boston Gas Company only). This large effort included large customer mail survey efforts (over 40,000 surveys to both the residential and C/I customers across the 7 utilities of the Collaborative). It also included market actor interviews, quality installation site visits, and content analysis of market actor advertising for each market being studied. This research included a second year follow–up, and transition strategy assessment. The measurement of market indicators occurred in 1999, market progress measurement in 2000, and transition strategy completion in 2000–2001. The team was led by GDS Associates, Inc.
Introductory Brochure for Initiating Community–Based Energy Efficiency Programs (1998)
Dr. Lewis led a team with Dr. Shel Feldman and Dr. Jane Peters in creating material for a brochure for use by the Energy Center of Wisconsin to use to introduce community leaders to the background and initial decision points in deciding to conduct and design a community–based energy efficiency program.
Review and Summary of Market Effects Studies (1997—1998)
Dr. Lewis was one of the lead investigators, in a team led by Research Into Action, that summarized and reviewed the market effects studies conducted in 1997 and 1998 in California by CADMAC. This seminal study provides recommendations for the conduct of future market transformation measurements.
Plans and Metrics for Measuring Market Transformation (1997)
Dr. Lewis was a member of the GDS Associates, Inc. team that assisted the Boston Gas Company in developing plans and metrics for measuring market transformation efforts. Dr. Lewis’ work included assisting in the methodological issues overview and leading work regarding high efficiency gas heating initiatives.
Market Transformation Program Planning (1997)
Dr. Lewis participated as part of a team of national experts led by GDS Associates, Inc. assisting Boston Edison Company staff in the development of the 5–Year Energy Efficiency Plan, with a primary focus on developing their Market Transformation (MT) programs and MT evaluation philosophy. Dr. Lewis led the MT evaluation component of this project.
Free Ridership Measurement Issues (1997)
Dr. Lewis assisted Long Island Lighting Company (LILCo) in assessing their free ridership measurement for a commercial lighting program. The initial method used by LILCo was the survey–based approach recommended in the 1994 ESEERCO study (discussed below). These results were compared to past participants, other studies’ findings in comparison to econometric results, and possible impacts caused by an improved economy.
Persistence Study (1996—1997)
Dr. Lewis led the first persistence and spillover study for all of Boston Edison’s demand–side management (DSM) programs. The study included a large number of telephone surveys and a large number of site visits. Overall findings included persistence and spillover percentages expected by program and program year. The study team included national DSM experts, engineers, statistical and data analysts, a telephone survey firm, and a large number of interns from an engineering program at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI).
Evaluation of C&I DSM, and Residential Energy Efficiency Lighting Programs (1997)
Dr. Lewis was the senior technical advisor for statistical assessment, sampling, and free ridership determination for both the commercial and industrial, and residential lighting energy efficiency program evaluation for Eastern Utilities Associates, in a project led by HEC, Inc.
Process Evaluation of Community–Based Energy Efficiency Program (1996—1997)
Dr. Lewis led a team of three experts, including Dr. Shel Feldman and Dr. Jane Peters, in a follow–up process evaluation of the New London Resource Project for the Energy Center of Wisconsin (ECW). This evaluation was unique in its evaluation of a municipal community–based program, and its interest in transferability. The evaluation included staff interviews, Community Advisory Committee member interviews, a residential mail survey, two residential and one commercial sector focus groups, industrial and institutional interviews (performed under a separate ECW contract with another contractor), and review of trade ally analysis (also performed under a separate project).
Determining Customer Behavior With and Without Incentives (1996)
Dr. Lewis designed and led survey and analysis that developed state–of–the–art survey methods for Consolidated Edison (Con Edison) of New York. The survey and analysis estimated how many of the program participants would have purchased the energy efficiency equipment without the Con Edison rebates, and how many were influenced by earlier utility programs and advertising. This work examined market transformation from a bottom–up approach and proved significant market transformation effects on the self–reported “free riders”. The complete examination of free ridership used a survey–based approach with adjustments for (1) self–reporting bias made from findings of prior survey and econometric comparison studies (ESEERCO and PG&E), (2) for a prospective versus retrospective basis, and (3) subtracting the self–reported free riders who probably took the action due to Con Edison’s actions (not true free riders), their self–report being caused by earlier market transformation, to obtain net free riders. This study was at the cutting edge in eight areas of utility energy efficiency analyses.
Wholesale Pricing for Electric Utility Standby Services (1995)
Dr. Lewis prepared an issue paper for the Edison Electric Institute for their consideration in making comments to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on their Open Access Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). This issue paper examined the NOPR in light of experience seen at the state level concerning pricing of standby services and the increasing competitiveness in the electric sector.
Hands–on Training for Econometric Analysis (1995)
Dr. Lewis developed and led a training course given to employees of the Boston Edison Company. She provided an overview of the various techniques used to evaluate utility programs on customer usage. In addition, she provided training in the different types of regression analysis used, demand–side management (DSM) regression model types, and the advantages and disadvantages of different model forms. Dr. Lewis also presented the advantages and history of using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) for these efforts. She taught regression diagnostics, and how regression problems could be corrected; statistically, and more simply through the modeling design. This training was done in conjunction with hands–on SAS
Introductory Paper on Managing Risks and the Use of Options (1995)
Dr. Lewis prepared an introductory paper on the use of options theory in utility resource planning, and the use of other financial instruments in the managing of risks in the utility industry. This paper was presented at the 1995 Association of Energy Services Professionals Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona in December.
Retail Electric Standby Rates, Pricing Design Trends and Issues (1994)
Dr. Lewis conducted an electric standby rate trend study, on behalf of Cambridge Systematics, for the New England Power Service Company. Information was gathered from the utility rate cases from PURbase, informal case studies of utilities with innovative standby rate designs or studies, and the Edison Electric Institute study of 1991.
Guidelines for Low–Income Energy Efficiency Arrearage Studies, Economic Impact Studies, and A Process to Determine When These Studies are Cost–Effective to Undertake (1994—1995)
For a consortium of the nine electric and gas utilities of New York, Dr. Lewis led a study to develop guidelines as described above. She undertook this innovative work, as a follow–up project to her nationally distributed Hard to Quantify project, also sponsored by the New York Low Income Evaluation Task Force.
Low–Income Program Comparison Project (1993—1995)
Dr. Lori Lewis led a comparison analysis of the low–income energy efficiency programs piloted by the nine electric and gas companies in New York to assess whether the programs could be made cost–effective. For the New York Low Income Evaluation Task Force, she conducted a comparison between the results, the programs, and the socio–economic characteristics of the utilities’ service territories. Dr. Lewis developed a new technique for this comparison, “Decomposition and Substitution”. This comparison attempted to decompose the differences in results as to how much is caused by differences the utilities can control (program differences); and differences beyond their control (utility and service territory characteristics).
Impacts and Customer Acceptance of Boston Edison Company’s Large Commercial and Industrial Retrofit Program for Energy Efficiency Equipment (1993—1994)
For Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Dr. Lewis led the impact and process evaluation of this program. The impact evaluation consisted of both time–series regression and Analysis of Covariance analysis on customer usage data, and engineering analysis for the largest expected savers. The usage analysis used customer billing data and undertook regression diagnostics and corrections, and considered the impacts of changing economic conditions on current, and future expected savings. The process evaluation incorporated a telephone survey technique, specifically designed to obtain feedback from senior engineers of large corporations that can be difficult to reach.
Hard to Quantify Benefits and Costs of Low–Income Energy Efficiency Programs (1993—1994)
Dr. Lewis led the most comprehensive review to–date, of the methodologies used, or the methodologies that might be used, to quantify the social benefits of low–income energy efficiency programs. A critique of prior work, and recommendations were made, as to what benefit or cost areas could be examined at the utility level; and which would need to be conducted at a larger regional, or nation level for validity of results. Methods for incorporating these social impacts into the investment decision were overviewed. By request, this study was made into a book for sale, and a flyer was distributed nationally by the American Gas Association (AGA), with its January 1995 newsletter.
Industry Impact Costing of Massachusetts’ State Implementation Plan for the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (1993—1994)
Dr. Lewis led the direct impact costing estimation, for a project of the Massachusetts’ Executive Offices of Economic Affairs and Environmental Affairs. This information was then used by Cambridge Systematics’ staff for an economic impact analysis using the Regional Economic Modeling Inc. (REMI) model for Massachusetts.
Methodology Study for Commercial and Industrial Customer Behavior, Purchasing Energy Efficiency Lighting (1992—1994)
For the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation, Dr. Lewis was part of a team from Cambridge Systematics, that conducted a comparison study of free ridership methods, methods examining how customers would have behaved in the absence of incentives. This study was conducted for a consortium of eight electric utilities in the state of New York. The team developed methodologies to evaluate the extent of product purchase if incentives had not existed. Three methodologies were developed as state–of–the–art study methods using: (1) customer surveys; (2) econometric (nested logit) discrete choice models; and (3) manufacturer and distributor surveys. The methods were then tested, and compared using commercial lighting retrofit program data, across all eight utilities.
Customer Behavior and Energy Efficiency Audit Programs (1992—1993)
For the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Dr. Lewis led the Cambridge Systematics’ work effort, for an impact evaluation provided by a team of consultants. This work included providing survey–based, and econometrically–derived, analysis of what proportion of customers would have installed energy efficient equipment without the additional incentive. An important element of this project was to separate behavior from two different incentives being offered to customers, where customers could obtain both incentives, energy audits and subsequent rebates.
Comparative Analysis of Industry Impacts from the U.S. and California Clean Air Act Amendments (1993)
Dr. Lewis, while at Cambridge Systematics, performed a comparative policy analysis of the U.S. and California Clean Air Act Amendments, as they impacted industry; particularly the automotive and utility industries. This work was performed for the Mitsubishi Research Institute.
Commercial Energy Management Services Evaluation (1992—1993)
For the Puget Sound Power and Light Company, Dr. Lewis was part of the Cambridge Systematics’ team that conducted a comprehensive evaluation of Puget’s Commercial Energy Management Services program. The evaluation covered 1985–1991 program participants, and included measuring persistence over time. Dr. Lewis introduced the ANCOVA technique to Cambridge Systematics in this project, and this may have been its first use in a commercial DSM evaluation.
Evaluation of the City of Austin’s Direct Weatherization, Loan and Whole House Rebate Programs (1989—1992)
While manager of the City’s Environmental and Conservation Services Department’s Evaluation and Research Section, Dr. Lewis led the innovative dual engineering and econometric evaluation, of the City’s Direct Weatherization Program for low–income customers, as well as, the Loan and Whole House Rebate programs for residential customers. This project developed the Hybrid Dual Engineering (HDE) method; which estimates customer’s comfort increases along with energy savings. The project also introduced the use of Analysis of Covariance, an econometric billing analysis technique to minimize model noise. She also developed the analysis method, research, and internal rate of return methodology that was used to determine the City’s negotiation strategy in limiting the size of a rebate as part inducing a large customer to install thermal storage as part of the City’s DSM effort.
City of Austin’s Environmental Impact Model for Energy Efficiency Alternatives (1989—1992)
Dr. Lewis supervised a project that developed one of the first of four environmental costing models, to compare energy efficiency alternatives to electric supply options. She hired personnel for this project and assisted in the direction and development of one of the only location–specific models of this type.
The Optimization Matrix Approach for Integrated Resource Planning (1989—1992)
Dr. Lewis was one of the three–member team, leading the development of the City of Austin’s Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) process. This team developed an innovative policy tool; an Optimization Matrix Approach. This policy tool aids policymakers in understanding the trade–offs in difference policy options across a variety of policy goals and outcomes.
City of Austin’s Electric Energy Efficiency Economic Impact Model (1989—1991)
For the City of Austin, Dr. Lewis led the development of an innovative economic impact modeling system for comparing energy efficiency investments with the supply–side alternative. The system included specific load shape causal factors and incorporated rate impacts.
State of Texas Econometric Model (STEM) (1986—1988)
While at the Texas Comptroller’s Office, Lori Lewis was part of a three member team that developed the State of Texas Econometric Model, that iterated with a cohort–component demographic forecasting model.